Scientific Papers

The endotoxin hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease | Molecular Neurodegeneration

Description of Image

  • Ahmad A, Ali T, Rehman SU, Kim MO. Phytomedicine-Based Potent Antioxidant, Fisetin Protects CNS-Insult LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration and Memory Impairment. J Clin Med. 2019;8(6):850. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060850.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ahmadi S, Razazan A, Nagpal R, Jain S, Wang B, Mishra SP, Wang S, Justice J, Ding J, McClain DA, Kritchevsky SB, Kitzman D, Yadav H. Metformin Reduces Aging-Related Leaky Gut and Improves Cognitive Function by Beneficially Modulating Gut Microbiome/Goblet Cell/Mucin Axis. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020;75(7):e9–21. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa056.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Andreadou EG, Katsipis G, Tsolaki M, Pantazaki AA. Involvement and relationship of bacterial lipopolysaccharides and cyclooxygenases levels in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment patients. J Neuroimmunol. 2021;15(357):577561.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bahador M, Cross AS. From therapy to experimental model: a hundred years of endotoxin administration to human subjects. J Endotoxin Res. 2007;13(5):251–79. https://doi.org/10.1177/0968051907085986.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Balin BJ, Gérard HC, Arking EJ, Appelt DM, Branigan PJ, Abrams JT, et al. Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1998;187:23–42.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Barichello T, et al. Long-term cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1671.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Barton SM, Janve VA, McClure R, Anderson A, Matsubara JA, Gore JC, Pham W. Lipopolysaccharide Induced Opening of the Blood Brain Barrier on Aging 5XFAD Mouse Model. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;67(2):503–13. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180755.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Beam A, Clinger E, Hao L. Effect of diet and dietary components on the composition of the gut microbiota. Nutrients. 2021;13(8):2795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082795.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bellenguez C, Küçükali F, Jansen IE, Kleineidam L, Moreno-Grau S, et al. New insights into the genetic etiology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Nat Genet. 2022;54(4):412–36. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01024-z.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Beyer MMS, Lonnemann N, Remus A, Latz E, Heneka MT, Korte M. Enduring Changes in Neuronal Function upon Systemic Inflammation Are NLRP3 Inflammasome Dependent. J Neurosci. 2020;40(28):5480–94. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0200-20.2020.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bhaskar K, Konerth M, Kokiko-Cochran ON, Cardona A, Ransohoff RM, Lamb BT. Regulation of tau pathology by the microglial fractalkine receptor. Neuron. 2010;68(1):19–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.023.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bodea LG, Wang Y, Linnartz-Gerlach B, Kopatz J, Sinkkonen L, Musgrove R, Kaoma T, Muller A, Vallar L, Di Monte DA, Balling R, Neumann H. Neurodegeneration by activation of the microglial complement-phagosome pathway. J Neurosci. 2014;34(25):8546–56. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5002-13.2014.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Brelstaff J, Tolkovsky AM, Ghetti B, Goedert M, Spillantini MG. Living neurons with tau filaments aberrantly expose phosphatidylserine and are phagocytosed by microglia. Cell Rep. 2018;24(8):1939–1948.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.07.072.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Brown GC. The endotoxin hypothesis of neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 2019;16(1):180. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1564-7.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bryant CE, Spring DR, Gangloff M, et al. The molecular basis of the host response to lipopolysaccharide. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:8–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2266.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bu XL, Yao XQ, Jiao SS, et al. A study on the association between infectious burden and Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22(12):1519–25.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Camilleri M. Leaky gut: mechanisms, measurement and clinical implications in humans. Gut. 2019;68(8):1516–26.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cani PD, Amar J, Iglesias MA, Poggi M, Knauf C, Bastelica D, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, Tuohy KM, Chabo C, Waget A, Delmée E, Cousin B, Sulpice T, Chamontin B, Ferrières J, Tanti JF, Gibson GR, Casteilla L, Delzenne NM, Alessi MC, Burcelin R. Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2007;56(7):1761–72. https://doi.org/10.2337/db06-1491.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cao P, Chen C, Liu A, Shan Q, Zhu X, Jia C, Peng X, Zhang M, Farzinpour Z, Zhou W, Wang H, Zhou JN, Song X, Wang L, Tao W, Zheng C, Zhang Y, Ding YQ, Jin Y, Xu L, Zhang Z. Early-life inflammation promotes depressive symptoms in adolescence via microglial engulfment of dendritic spines. Neuron. 2021;109(16):2573–2589.e9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2021.06.012.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cattaneo A, Cattane N, Galluzzi S, Provasi S, Lopizzo N, Festari C, Ferrari C, Guerra UP, Paghera B, Muscio C, Bianchetti A, Volta GD, Turla M, Cotelli MS, Gennuso M, Prelle A, Zanetti O, Lussignoli G, Mirabile D, Bellandi D, Gentile S, Belotti G, Villani D, Harach T, Bolmont T, Padovani A, Boccardi M, Frisoni GB, INDIA-FBP Group. Association of brain amyloidosis with pro-inflammatory gut bacterial taxa and peripheral inflammation markers in cognitively impaired elderly. Neurobiol Aging. 2017;49:60–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.08.019.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Chacko A, Delbaz A, Walkden H, Basu S, Armitage CW, Eindorf T, Trim LK, Miller E, West NP, St John JA, Beagley KW, Ekberg JAK. Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect the central nervous system via the olfactory and trigeminal nerves and contributes to Alzheimer’s disease risk. Sci Rep. 2022;12(1):2759. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-06749-9.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Chen S, Tang C, Ding H, Wang Z, Liu X, Chai Y, Jiang W, Han Y, Zeng H. Maf1 Ameliorates Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy by Suppressing the NF-kB/NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Pathway. Front Immunol. 2020;23(11):594071. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.594071.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Choi DY, Lee JW, Lin G, Lee YK, Lee YH, Choi IS, Han SB, Jung JK, Kim YH, Kim KH, Oh KW, Hong JT, Lee MS. Obovatol attenuates LPS-induced memory impairments in mice via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Neurochem Int. 2012;60(1):68–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2011.11.005.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cohen O, Reichenberg A, Perry C, Ginzberg D, Pollmächer T, Soreq H, Yirmiya R. Endotoxin-induced changes in human working and declarative memory associate with cleavage of plasma “readthrough” acetylcholinesterase. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21(3):199–212. https://doi.org/10.1385/jmn:21:3:199.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Comim CM, et al. Cognitive impairment in the septic brain. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2009;6:194–203.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cross AS. Anti-endotoxin vaccines: Back to the future. Virulence. 2014;5:219–25. https://doi.org/10.4161/viru.25965.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cunningham C. Microglia and neurodegeneration: the role of systemic inflammation. Glia. 2013;61(1):71–90. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22350.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Daws MR, Sullam PM, Niemi EC, Chen TT, Tchao NK, Seaman WE. Pattern recognition by TREM-2: binding of anionic ligands. J Immunol. 2003;171(2):594–9. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.171.2.594.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • DiCarlo G, Wilcock D, Henderson D, Gordon M, Morgan D. Intrahippocampal LPS injections reduce Abeta load in APP+PS1 transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22(6):1007–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0197-4580(01)00292-5.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ding Y, Ren J, Yu H, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontitis causing bacterium, induces memory impairment and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice. Immun Ageing. 2018;15:6.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dodiya HB, Kuntz T, Shaik SM, Baufeld C, Leibowitz J, Zhang X, Sisodia SS. Sex-specific effects of microbiome perturbations on cerebral Aβ amyloidosis and microglia phenotypes. J Exp Med. 2019;216(7):1542–60. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20182386.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dominy SS, Lynch C, Ermini F, Benedyk M, Marczyk A, Konradi A, Nguyen M, Haditsch U, Raha D, Griffin C, Holsinger LJ, Arastu-Kapur S, Kaba S, Lee A, Ryder MI, Potempa B, Mydel P, Hellvard A, Adamowicz K, Hasturk H, Walker GD, Reynolds EC, Faull RLM, Curtis MA, Dragunow M, Potempa J. Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer’s disease brains: evidence for disease causation and treatment with small-molecule inhibitors. Sci Adv. 2019;5(1):eaau3333. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau3333.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ehlenbach WJ, Hough CL, Crane PK, Haneuse SJ, Carson SS, Curtis JR, Larson EB. Association between acute care and critical illness hospitalization and cognitive function in older adults. JAMA. 2010;303(8):763–70. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.167.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fong TG, Inouye SK. The inter-relationship between delirium and dementia: the importance of delirium prevention. Nat Rev Neurol. 2022;18(10):579–96. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41582-022-00698-7.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Frölich L. Alzheimer’s disease – the “microbial hypothesis” from a clinical and neuroimaging perspective. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2020;30(306):111181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111181.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Fu Y, Xu X, Zhang Y, Yue P, Fan Y, Liu M, Chen J, Liu A, Zhang X, Bao F. Oral Porphyromonas gingivalis Infections Increase the Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease: a review. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2023;21(1):7–16. https://doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.b3818045.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gale SC, Gao L, Mikacenic C, Coyle SM, Rafaels N, Murray Dudenkov T, Madenspacher JH, Draper DW, Ge W, Aloor JJ, Azzam KM, Lai L, Blackshear PJ, Calvano SE, Barnes KC, Lowry SF, Corbett S, Wurfel MM, Fessler MB. APOε4 is associated with enhanced in vivo innate immune responses in human subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(1):127–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.032.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ganz T, Fainstein N, Elad A, Lachish M, Goldfarb S, Einstein O, Ben-Hur T. Microbial pathogens induce neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease mice: protection by microglial regulation. J Neuroinflammation. 2022;19(1):5.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gao X, Dong Y, Liu Z, Niu B. Silencing of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 enhances the inflammatory responses of alveolar macrophages to lipopolysaccharide. Mol Med Rep. 2013;7(3):921–6. https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2013.1268.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gatz M, Reynolds CA, Fratiglioni L, Johansson B, Mortimer JA, Berg S, Fiske A, Pedersen NL. Role of genes and environments for explaining Alzheimer disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(2):168–74. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.63.2.168.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • GBD 2019 Dementia Forecasting Collaborators. Estimation of the global prevalence of dementia in 2019 and forecasted prevalence in 2050: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet Public Health. 2022;7(2):e105–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00249-8.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gérard HC, Dreses-Werringloer U, Wildt KS, Deka S, Oszust C, Balin BJ, et al. Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in the Alzheimer’s brain. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;48:355–66.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ghosh S, Wu MD, Shaftel SS, Kyrkanides S, LaFerla FM, Olschowka JA, et al. Sustained interleukin-1β overexpression exacerbates tau pathology despite reduced amyloid burden in an Alzheimer’s mouse model. J Neurosci. 2013;33(11):5053–64.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Giridharan VV, Catumbela CSG, Catalão CHR, Lee J, Ganesh BP, Petronilho F, Dal-Pizzol F, Morales R, Barichello T. Sepsis exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology, modulates the gut microbiome, increases neuroinflammation and amyloid burden. Mol Psychiatry. 2023;28(10):4463–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-023-02172-2.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gnauck A, Lentle RG, Kruger MC. Chasing a ghost?-Issues with the determination of circulating levels of endotoxin in human blood. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2016;53(3):197–215. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408363.2015.1123215.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Grigoleit JS, Oberbeck JR, Lichte P, Kobbe P, Wolf OT, Montag T, del Rey A, Gizewski ER, Engler H, Schedlowski M. Lipopolysaccharide-induced experimental immune activation does not impair memory functions in humans. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2010;94(4):561–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2010.09.011.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Grigoleit JS, Kullmann JS, Wolf OT, Hammes F, Wegner A, Jablonowski S, Engler H, Gizewski E, Oberbeck R, Schedlowski M. Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on neurobehavioral functions in humans. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28330. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028330.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hampton RY, Golenbock DT, Penman M, Krieger M, Raetz CR. Recognition and plasma clearance of endotoxin by scavenger receptors. Nature. 1991;352:342–4.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hao LY, Hao XQ, Li SH, Li XH. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in age-increasing offspring rats. Neuroscience. 2010;166(3):763–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.01.006.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Heneka MT, McManus RM, Latz E. Inflammasome signalling in brain function and neurodegenerative disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2018;19(10):610–21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-018-0055-7.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Herber DL, Roth LM, Wilson D, Wilson N, Mason JE, Morgan D, Gordon MN. Time-dependent reduction in Abeta levels after intracranial LPS administration in APP transgenic mice. Exp Neurol. 2004;190(1):245–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.07.007.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hurley JC. Endotoxemia: methods of detection and clinical correlates. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995;8:268–92. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.8.2.268.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ilievski V, Zuchowska PK, Green SJ, Toth PT, Ragozzino ME, Le K, Aljewari HW, O’Brien-Simpson NM, Reynolds EC, Watanabe K. Chronic oral application of a periodontal pathogen results in brain inflammation, neurodegeneration and amyloid beta production in wild type mice. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0204941. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204941.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ishida N, Ishihara Y, Ishida K, et al. Periodontitis induced by bacterial infection exacerbates features of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic mice. npj Aging Mech Dis. 2017;3:15.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ising C, Venegas C, Zhang S, Scheiblich H, Schmidt SV, Vieira-Saecker A, Schwartz S, Albasset S, McManus RM, Tejera D, Griep A, Santarelli F, Brosseron F, Opitz S, Stunden J, Merten M, Kayed R, Golenbock DT, Blum D, Latz E, Buée L, Heneka MT. NLRP3 inflammasome activation drives tau pathology. Nature. 2019;575(7784):669–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1769-z.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jaeger LB, Dohgu S, Sultana R, Lynch JL, Owen JB, Erickson MA, Shah GN, Price TO, Fleegal-Demotta MA, Butterfield DA, Banks WA. Lipopolysaccharide alters the blood-brain barrier transport of amyloid beta protein: a mechanism for inflammation in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2009;23(4):507–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2009.01.017.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jain L, Sharma BC, Sharma P, Srivastava S, Agrawal A, Sarin SK. Serum endotoxin and inflammatory mediators in patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44(12):1027–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2012.07.002.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jayashree B, Bibin YS, Prabhu D, et al. Increased circulatory levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zonulin signify novel biomarkers of proinflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;388:203–10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-013-1911-4.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kalyan M, Tousif AH, Sonali S, Vichitra C, Sunanda T, Praveenraj SS, Ray B, Gorantla VR, Rungratanawanich W, Mahalakshmi AM, Qoronfleh MW, Monaghan TM, Song BJ, Essa MM, Chidambaram SB. Role of Endogenous Lipopolysaccharides in Neurological Disorders. Cells. 2022;11(24):4038. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11244038.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kayagaki N, Stowe IB, Lee BL, O’Rourke K, Anderson K, Warming S, Cuellar T, Haley B, Roose-Girma M, Phung QT, Liu PS, Lill JR, Li H, Wu J, Kummerfeld S, Zhang J, Lee WP, Snipas SJ, Salvesen GS, Morris LX, Fitzgerald L, Zhang Y, Bertram EM, Goodnow CC, Dixit VM. Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical inflammasome signalling. Nature. 2015;526(7575):666–71. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15541.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kitazawa M, Oddo S, Yamasaki TR, Green KN, LaFerla FM. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation exacerbates tau pathology by a cyclin-dependent kinase 5-mediated pathway in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci. 2005;25(39):8843–53. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2868-05.2005.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Knopp RC, Baumann KK, Wilson ML, Banks WA, Erickson MA. Amyloid Beta Pathology Exacerbates Weight Loss and Brain Cytokine Responses following Low-Dose Lipopolysaccharide in Aged Female Tg2576 Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(4):2377. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042377.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Kondo S, Kohsaka S, Okabe S. Long-term changes of spine dynamics and microglia after transient peripheral immune response triggered by LPS in vivo. Mol Brain. 2011;17(4):27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-6606-4-27.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Krabbe KS, Bruunsgaard H, Qvist J, Hansen CM, Møller K, Fonsmark L, Madsen PL, Kronborg G, Frandsen U, Andersen HØ, Skinhøj P, Pedersen BK. Hypotension during endotoxemia in aged humans. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2001;18(9):572–5. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2346.2001.00958.x.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Krabbe KS, Reichenberg A, Yirmiya R, Smed A, Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H. Low-dose endotoxemia and human neuropsychological functions. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19(5):453–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2005.04.010.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lachmann PJ, Lay E, Seilly DJ, Buchberger A, Schwaeble W, Khadake J. Further studies of the down-regulation by Factor I of the C3b feedback cycle using endotoxin as a soluble activator and red cells as a source of CR1 on sera of different complotype. Clin Exp Immunol. 2016;183(1):150–6. https://doi.org/10.1111/cei.12714.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lee JW, Lee YK, Yuk DY, Choi DY, Ban SB, Oh KW, Hong JT. Neuro-inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide causes cognitive impairment through enhancement of beta-amyloid generation. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;29(5):37. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-5-37.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Li Y, Liu L, Barger SW, Griffin WST. Interleukin-1 mediates pathological effects of microglia on tau phosphorylation and on synaptophysin synthesis in cortical neurons through a p38-MAPK pathway. J Neurosci. 2003;23(5):1605–11.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Liu J, Wang D, Li SQ, Yu Y, Ye RD. Suppression of LPS-induced tau hyperphosphorylation by serum amyloid A. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;2(13):28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0493-y.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Liu P, Wu L, Peng G, Han Y, Tang R, Ge J, Zhang L, Jia L, Yue S, Zhou K, Li L, Luo B, Wang B. Altered microbiomes distinguish Alzheimer’s disease from amnestic mild cognitive impairment and health in a Chinese cohort. Brain Behav Immun. 2019;80:633–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.05.008.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Liu Y, Zhang S, Li X, Liu E, Wang X, Zhou Q, Ye J, Wang JZ. Peripheral inflammation promotes brain tau transmission via disrupting blood-brain barrier. Biosci Rep. 2020;40(2):BSR20193629. https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20193629.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Loffredo L, Ettorre E, Zicari AM, Inghilleri M, Nocella C, Perri L, Spalice A, Fossati C, De Lucia MC, Pigozzi F, Cacciafesta M, Violi F, Carnevale R, Neurodegenerative Disease study group. Oxidative stress and gut-derived lipopolysaccharides in neurodegenerative disease: role of NOX2. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020;2020:8630275.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lukiw WJ. Bacteroides fragilis Lipopolysaccharide and Inflammatory Signaling in Alzheimer’s Disease. Front Microbiol. 2016;26(7):1544. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01544.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lukiw WJ, Li W, Bond T, Zhao Y. Facilitation of Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Microbiome-Derived Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Entry Into Human Neurons by Amyloid Beta-42 (Aβ42) Peptide. Front Cell Neurosci. 2019;6(13):545. https://doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00545.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Manabe T, Rácz I, Schwartz S, Oberle L, Santarelli F, Emmrich JV, Neher JJ, Heneka MT. Systemic inflammation induced the delayed reduction of excitatory synapses in the CA3 during ageing. J Neurochem. 2021;159(3):525–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15491.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mander P, Brown GC. Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation. 2005;12(2):20. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-2-20.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Maphis N, Xu G, Kokiko-Cochran ON, Cardona AE, Ransohoff RM, Lamb BT, Bhaskar K. Loss of tau rescues inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. Front Neurosci. 2015;3(9):196. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2015.00196.

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Marizzoni M, Mirabelli P, Mombelli E, Coppola L, Festari C, Lopizzo N, Luongo D, Mazzelli M, Naviglio D, Blouin JL, Abramowicz M, Salvatore M, Pievani M, Cattaneo A, Frisoni GB. A peripheral signature of Alzheimer’s disease featuring microbiota-gut-brain axis markers. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2023;15(1):101. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-023-01218-5.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Miklossy J. Alzheimer’s disease – a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch’s and Hill’s criteria. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:90. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-8-90.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Milde S, van Tartwijk FW, Vilalta A, Hornik TC, Dundee JM, Puigdellívol M, Brown GC. Inflammatory neuronal loss in the substantia nigra induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide is prevented by knockout of the P2Y6 receptor in mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2021;18(1):225. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02280-2.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Minter MR, Zhang C, Leone V, Ringus DL, Zhang X, Oyler-Castrillo P, Musch MW, Liao F, Ward JF, Holtzman DM, Chang EB, Tanzi RE, Sisodia SS. Antibiotic-induced perturbations in gut microbial diversity influences neuro-inflammation and amyloidosis in a murine model of Alzheimer’s disease. Sci Rep. 2016;21(6):30028. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep30028.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mizobuchi H, Soma GI. Low-dose lipopolysaccharide as an immune regulator for homeostasis maintenance in the central nervous system through transformation to neuroprotective microglia. Neural Regen Res. 2021;16(10):1928–34.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Mohammad S, Thiemermann C. Role of Metabolic Endotoxemia in Systemic Inflammation and Potential Interventions. Front Immunol. 2021;11(11):594150. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.594150.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Moir RD, Lathe R, Tanzi RE. The antimicrobial protection hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2018;14(12):1602–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.06.3040.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Neher JJ, Cunningham C. Priming Microglia for Innate Immune Memory in the Brain. Trends Immunol. 2019;40(4):358–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2019.02.001.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Neher JJ, Neniskyte U, Zhao JW, Bal-Price A, Tolkovsky AM, Brown GC. Inhibition of microglial phagocytosis is sufficient to prevent inflammatory neuronal death. J Immunol. 2011;186(8):4973–83. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1003600.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Neher JJ, Neniskyte U, Hornik T, Brown GC. Inhibition of UDP/P2Y6 purinergic signaling prevents phagocytosis of viable neurons by activated microglia in vitro and in vivo. Glia. 2014;62(9):1463–75. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22693.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ojala JO, Sutinen EM, Salminen A, Pirttilä T. Interleukin-18 increases expression of kinases involved in tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;205(1):86–93.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pei Y, Lu Y, Li H, Jiang C, Wang L. Gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in subjects with cognitive impairments: a cross-sectional study. Front Aging Neurosci. 2023;7(15):1174599. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2023.1174599.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Petruk G, Elvén M, Hartman E, Davoudi M, Schmidtchen A, Puthia M, Petrlova J. The role of full-length apoE in clearance of Gram-negative bacteria and their endotoxins. J Lipid Res. 2021;62:100086.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pfalzgraff A, Weindl G. Intracellular lipopolysaccharide sensing as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2019;40:187–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2019.01.001.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Poole S, Singhrao SK, Kesavalu L, Curtis MA, Crean S. Determining the presence of periodontopathic virulence factors in short-term postmortem Alzheimer’s disease brain tissue. J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2013;36:665–77.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Puigdellívol M, Milde S, Vilalta A, Cockram TOJ, Allendorf DH, Lee JY, Dundee JM, Pampuščenko K, Borutaite V, Nuthall HN, Brelstaff JH, Spillantini MG, Brown GC. The microglial P2Y6 receptor mediates neuronal loss and memory deficits in neurodegeneration. Cell Rep. 2021;37(13):110148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110148.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Qin L, Liu Y, Hong JS, Crews FT. NADPH oxidase and aging drive microglial activation, oxidative stress, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration following systemic LPS administration. Glia. 2013;61(6):855–68. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.22479.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Quintanilla RA, Orellana DI, González-Billault C, Maccioni RB. Interleukin-6 induces Alzheimer-type phosphorylation of tau protein by deregulating the cdk5/p35 pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2004;295(1):245–57.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Raetz CR, Whitfield C. Lipopolysaccharide endotoxins. Annu Rev Biochem. 2002;71:635–700. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biochem.71.110601.135414.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Reichenberg A, Yirmiya R, Schuld A, Kraus T, Haack M, Morag A, Pollmächer T. Cytokine-associated emotional and cognitive disturbances in humans. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(5):445–52. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.5.445.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rensen PC, Oosten M, Bilt E, Eck M, Kuiper J, Berkel TJ. Human recombinant apolipoprotein E redirects lipopolysaccharide from Kupffer cells to liver parenchymal cells in rats In vivo. J Clin Invest. 1997;99(10):2438–45. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI119427.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Angus DC, Aikawa N, Demeyer I, Sainati S, Amlot N, Cao C, Ii M, Matsuda H, Mouri K, Cohen J. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of TAK-242 for the treatment of severe sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(8):1685–94. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e7c5c9. PMID: 20562702.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Saji N, Saito Y, Yamashita T, Murotani K, Tsuduki T, Hisada T, Sugimoto T, Niida S, Toba K, Sakurai T. Relationship Between Plasma Lipopolysaccharides, Gut Microbiota, and Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2022;86(4):1947–57.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sánchez-Tapia M, Mimenza-Alvarado A, Granados-Domínguez L, Flores-López A, López-Barradas A, Ortiz V, Pérez-Cruz C, Sánchez-Vidal H, Hernández-Acosta J, Ávila-Funes JA, Guevara-Cruz M, Tovar AR, Torres N. The Gut Microbiota-Brain Axis during Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: Role of Tau Protein, β-Amyloid and LPS in Serum and Curli Protein in Stool. Nutrients. 2023;15(4):932. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15040932.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sandiego CM, Gallezot JD, Pittman B, Nabulsi N, Lim K, Lin SF, Matuskey D, Lee JY, O’Connor KC, Huang Y, Carson RE, Hannestad J, Cosgrove KP. Imaging robust microglial activation after lipopolysaccharide administration in humans with PET. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112(40):12468–73. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511003112.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Saura J, Petegnief V, Wu X, Liang Y, Paul SM. Microglial apolipoprotein E and astroglial apolipoprotein J expression in vitro: opposite effects of lipopolysaccharide. J Neurochem. 2003;85(6):1455–67. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01788.x.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Scheltens P, De Strooper B, Kivipelto M, Holstege H, Chételat G, Teunissen CE, Cummings J, van der Flier WM. Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet. 2021;397(10284):1577–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32205-4.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Semmler A, Frisch C, Debeir T, Ramanathan M, Okulla T, Klockgether T, Heneka MT. Long-term cognitive impairment, neuronal loss and reduced cortical cholinergic innervation after recovery from sepsis in a rodent model. Exp Neurol. 2007;204(2):733–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2007.01.003.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R. Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body. PLoS Biol. 2016;14:e1002533. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Seo DO, O’Donnell D, Jain N, Ulrich JD, Herz J, Li Y, Lemieux M, Cheng J, Hu H, Serrano JR, Bao X, Franke E, Karlsson M, Meier M, Deng S, Desai C, Dodiya H, Lelwala-Guruge J, Handley SA, Kipnis J, Sisodia SS, Gordon JI, Holtzman DM. ApoE isoform- and microbiota-dependent progression of neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy. Science. 2023;379(6628):eadd1236. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.add1236.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Seok J, Warren HS, Cuenca AG, Mindrinos MN, Baker HV, Xu W, Richards DR, McDonald-Smith GP, Gao H, Hennessy L, Finnerty CC, López CM, Honari S, Moore EE, Minei JP, Cuschieri J, Bankey PE, Johnson JL, Sperry J, Nathens AB, Billiar TR, West MA, Jeschke MG, Klein MB, Gamelli RL, Gibran NS, Brownstein BH, Miller-Graziano C, Calvano SE, Mason PH, Cobb JP, Rahme LG, Lowry SF, Maier RV, Moldawer LL, Herndon DN, Davis RW, Xiao W, Tompkins RG, Inflammation and Host Response to Injury, Large Scale Collaborative Research Program. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(9):3507–12. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1222878110.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shaw KN, Commins S, O’Mara SM. Lipopolysaccharide causes deficits in spatial learning in the watermaze but not in BDNF expression in the rat dentate gyrus. Behav Brain Res. 2001;124(1):47–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0166-4328(01)00232-7.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sheng JG, Bora SH, Xu G, Borchelt DR, Price DL, Koliatsos VE. Lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation increases intracellular accumulation of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid beta peptide in APPswe transgenic mice. Neurobiol Dis. 2003;14(1):133–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0969-9961(03)00069-x.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shi J, Zhao Y, Wang K, Shi X, Wang Y, Huang H, Zhuang Y, Cai T, Wang F, Shao F. Cleavage of GSDMD by inflammatory caspases determines pyroptotic cell death. Nature. 2015;526(7575):660–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature15514.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shindler-Itskovitch T, Ravona-Springer R, Leibovitz A, Muhsen K. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Association between Helicobacterpylori Infection and Dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;52(4):1431–42. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160132.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Soscia SJ, Kirby JE, Washicosky KJ, Tucker SM, Ingelsson M, Hyman B, Burton MA, Goldstein LE, Duong S, Tanzi RE, Moir RD. The Alzheimer’s disease-associated amyloid beta-protein is an antimicrobial peptide. PLoS One. 2010;5(3):e9505. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009505.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sudwarts A, Ramesha S, Gao T, Ponnusamy M, Wang S, Hansen M, Kozlova A, Bitarafan S, Kumar P, Beaulieu-Abdelahad D, Zhang X, Collier L, Szekeres C, Wood LB, Duan J, Thinakaran G, Rangaraju S. BIN1 is a key regulator of proinflammatory and neurodegeneration-related activation in microglia. Mol Neurodegener. 2022;17(1):33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13024-022-00535-x.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Suenaert P, Bulteel V, Lemmens L, Noman M, Geypens B, Van Assche G, Geboes K, Ceuppens JL, Rutgeerts P. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment restores the gut barrier in Crohn’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97(8):2000–4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05914.x.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Sy M, Kitazawa M, Medeiros R, Whitman L, Cheng D, Lane TE, Laferla FM. Inflammation induced by infection potentiates tau pathological features in transgenic mice. Am J Pathol. 2011;178(6):2811–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2011.02.012.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Tate JA, Snitz BE, Alvarez KA, Nahin RL, Weissfeld LA, Lopez O, Angus DC, Shah F, Ives DG, Fitzpatrick AL, Williamson JD, Arnold AM, DeKosky ST, Yende S, GEM Study Investigators. Infection hospitalization increases risk of dementia in the elderly. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(5):1037–46. https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000000123.

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Tejera D, Mercan D, Sanchez-Caro JM, Hanan M, Greenberg D, Soreq H, Latz E, Golenbock D, Heneka MT. Systemic inflammation impairs microglial Aβ clearance through NLRP3 inflammasome. EMBO J. 2019;38(17):e101064. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2018101064.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Van Oosten M, Rensen PC, Van Amersfoort ES, Van Eck M, Van Dam AM, Breve JJ, Vogel T, Panet A, Van Berkel TJ, Kuiper J. Apolipoprotein E protects against bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality. A new therapeutic approach to treat gram-negative sepsis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276(12):8820–4. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M009915200.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vatanen T, Kostic AD, d’Hennezel E, Siljander H, Franzosa EA, Yassour M, et al. Variation in microbiome LPS immunogenicity contributes to autoimmunity in humans. Cell. 2016;165:1551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.056.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vitek MP, Brown CM, Colton CA. APOE genotype-specific differences in the innate immune response. Neurobiol Aging. 2009;30(9):1350–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.11.014.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vogt NM, Kerby RL, Dill-McFarland KA, Harding SJ, Merluzzi AP, Johnson SC, Carlsson CM, Asthana S, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Bendlin BB, Rey FE. Gut microbiome alterations in Alzheimer’s disease. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):13537. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-13601-y.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Walker KA, Gottesman RF, Wu A, Knopman DS, Gross AL, Mosley TH Jr, Selvin E, Windham BG. Systemic inflammation during midlife and cognitive change over 20 years: The ARIC Study. Neurology. 2019;92(11):e1256–67. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007094.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wang LM. Lipopolysaccharide endotoxemia induces amyloid-β and p-tau formation in the rat brain. Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018;8(2):86–99.

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wang J, Li L, Wang Z, Cui Y, Tan X, Yuan T, Liu Q, Liu Z, Liu X. Supplementation of lycopene attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced amyloidogenesis and cognitive impairments via mediating neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. J Nutr Biochem. 2018;56:16–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2018.01.009.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wang M, Gao X, Zhao K, Chen H, Xu M, Wang K. Effect of TREM2 on Release of Inflammatory Factor from LPS-stimulated Microglia and Its Possible Mechanism. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2019;49(2):249–56.

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Weberpals M, Hermes M, Hermann S, Kummer MP, Terwel D, Semmler A, Berger M, Schäfers M, Heneka MT. NOS2 gene deficiency protects from sepsis-induced long-term cognitive deficits. J Neurosci. 2009;29(45):14177–84. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3238-09.2009.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wendeln AC, Degenhardt K, Kaurani L, Gertig M, Ulas T, Jain G, Wagner J, Häsler LM, Wild K, Skodras A, Blank T, Staszewski O, Datta M, Centeno TP, Capece V, Islam MR, Kerimoglu C, Staufenbiel M, Schultze JL, Beyer M, Prinz M, Jucker M, Fischer A, Neher JJ. Innate immune memory in the brain shapes neurological disease hallmarks. Nature. 2018;556(7701):332–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0023-4.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Weng X, Zhao H, Guan Q, Shi G, Feng S, Gleave ME, Nguan CC, Du C. Clusterin regulates macrophage expansion, polarization and phagocytic activity in response to inflammation in the kidneys. Immunol Cell Biol. 2021;99(3):274–87. https://doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12405.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Widmann CN, Heneka MT. Long-term cerebral consequences of sepsis. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13(6):630–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70017-1.

    Article 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wiedermann CJ, Kiechl S, Dunzendorfer S, et al. Association of endotoxemia with carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: prospective results from the Bruneck Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1975–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(99)00448-9.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wright SD, Levin SM, Jong MT, Chad Z, Kabbash LG. CR3 (CD11b/CD18) expresses one binding site for Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides and a second site for bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Exp Med. 1989;169:175–83.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wu X, Gao Y, Shi C, Tong J, Ma D, Shen J, Yang J, Ji M. Complement C1q drives microglia-dependent synaptic loss and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation. Neuropharmacology. 2023;1(237):109646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2023.109646.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhan X, Stamova B, Jin LW, DeCarli C, Phinney B, Sharp FR. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology. Neurology. 2016;87(22):2324–32. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003391.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhan X, Stamova B, Sharp FR. Lipopolysaccharide Associates with Amyloid Plaques, Neurons and Oligodendrocytes in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain: A Review. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;22(10):42. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00042.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhang R, Miller RG, Gascon R, Champion S, Katz J, Lancero M, Narvaez A, Honrada R, Ruvalcaba D, McGrath MS. Circulating endotoxin and systemic immune activation in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS). J Neuroimmunol. 2009;206(1–2):121–4.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhao Y, Jaber V, Lukiw WJ. Secretory Products of the Human GI Tract Microbiome and Their Potential Impact on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): Detection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in AD Hippocampus. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;11(7):318. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00318.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhao Y, Cong L, Jaber V, Lukiw WJ. Microbiome-Derived Lipopolysaccharide Enriched in the Perinuclear Region of Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Front Immunol. 2017;4(8):1064. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01064.

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhao W, Xu Z, Cao J, Fu Q, Wu Y, Zhang X, Long Y, Zhang X, Yang Y, Li Y, Mi W. Elamipretide (SS-31) improves mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic and memory impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2019;16(1):230. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1627-9.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhao Y, Jaber VR, Pogue AI, Sharfman NM, Taylor C, Lukiw WJ. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) as Potent Neurotoxic Glycolipids in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(20):12671. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012671.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhou J, Yu W, Zhang M, Tian X, Li Y, Lü Y. Imbalance of Microglial TLR4/TREM2 in LPS-Treated APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice: A Potential Link Between Alzheimer’s Disease and Systemic Inflammation. Neurochem Res. 2019;44(5):1138–51.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zhuang ZQ, Shen LL, Li WW, Fu X, Zeng F, Gui L, Lü Y, Cai M, Zhu C, Tan YL, Zheng P, Li HY, Zhu J, Zhou HD, Bu XL, Wang YJ. Gut Microbiota is Altered in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;63(4):1337–46. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-180176.

    Article 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Description of Image

    Source link