Scientific Papers

ER-export and ARFRP1/AP-1–dependent delivery of SARS-CoV-2 Envelope to lysosomes controls late stages of viral replication | Science Advances

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The β-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Coronaviral Envelope (E) proteins are pentameric viroporins that play essential roles in assembly, release, and pathogenesis. We developed a nondisruptive tagging strategy for SARS-CoV-2 E and find that, at steady state, it localizes to the Golgi and to lysosomes. We identify sequences in E, conserved across


, responsible for endoplasmic reticulum–to–Golgi export, and relate this activity to interaction with COP-II via SEC24. Using proximity biotinylation, we identify an ADP ribosylation factor 1/adaptor protein–1 (ARFRP1/AP-1)–dependent pathway allowing Golgi-to-lysosome trafficking of E. We identify sequences in E that bind AP-1, are conserved across β-coronaviruses, and allow E to be trafficked from Golgi to lysosomes. We show that E acts to deacidify lysosomes and, by developing a trans-complementation assay for SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, that lysosomal delivery of E and its viroporin activity is necessary for efficient viral replication and release.

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