Scientific Papers

Ten golden rules for optimal antibiotic use in hospital settings: the WARNING call to action | World Journal of Emergency Surgery


Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance National/International Network Group (WARNING) Collaborators:

Massimo Sartelli1, Philip S. Barie2, Federico Coccolini3, Mohamed Abbas4, Lilian M. Abbo5,6, Gulnora K. Abdukhalilova7, Yishak Abraham8, Salisu Abubakar9, Fikri M. Abu-Zidan10, Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi11,12, Harissou Adamou13, Gulara Afandiyeva14, Ervis Agastra15, Wadha A. Alfouzan16,17, Majdi N. Al-Hasan18, Sajjad Ali19, Syed Muhammad Ali20,21, Fatima Allaw22, Gbemisola Allwell-Brown23, Afreenish Amir24, Obed Kwabena Offe Amponsah25, Abdelkarim Al Omari26, Luca Ansaloni27, Shamshul Ansari28, Ana Belen Arauz29, Goran Augustin30,31, Bih Awazi32, Mohammad Azfar33, Mamadou Saliou Bailo Bah34, Miklosh Bala35, Anura S.K. Banagala36, Suman Baral37, Matteo Bassetti38,39, Luis Bavestrello40, Gregory Beilman41, Kebebe Bekele42, Moussa Benboubker43, Bojana Beović44,45, Maria Daniela Bergamasco46, Silvia Bertagnolio47, Walter L. Biffl48, Stijn Blot49,50, Marja A. Boermeester51, Robert A. Bonomo52,53, Adrian Brink54, Silvio Brusaferro55, Jonathan Butemba56, Miguel A. Caínzos57, Adrian Camacho-Ortiz58, Rafael Canton59-60, Antonio Cascio61,62, Alessandro Cassini63,64, Enrique Cástro-Sanchez65-67, Marco Catarci68, Rodolfo Catena69, Leili Chamani-Tabriz70, Sujith J. Chandy71, Esmita Charani72, William G. Cheadle73, Diana Chebet74, Ibrahim Chikowe75, Francesca Chiara76, Vincent Chi-Chung Cheng77,78, Anna Chioti79, Maria Elena Cocuz80,81, Raul Coimbra82, Francesco Cortese83, Yunfeng Cui84, Jacek Czepiel85,86, Mira Dasic87, Nataliya de Francisco Serpa88, Stijn W. de Jonge52, Samir Delibegovic89, E. Patchen Dellinger90, Zaza Demetrashvili91, Alessandra De Palma92, Danushka De Silva93, Belinda De Simone94, Jan De Waele95, Sameer Dhingra96, Jose J. Diaz97, Claudia Dima98, Natalia Dirani99, Cornelius C. Dodoo100, Gereltuya Dorj101,102, Therese M. Duane103, Christian Eckmann104, Beverly Egyir105, Mutasim M. Elmangory106, Mushira A. Enani107, Onder Ergonul108,09, Juan Pablo Escalera-Antezana110, Kevin Escandon111, Abdul-Wahab Omo-ope Ettu112,113, Joseph O. Fadare114, Massimo Fantoni115, Mohammad Farahbakhsh116, Mario Paulo Faro117, Alberto Ferreres118, Gianina Flocco119, Esteban Foianini120, Donald E. Fry121, Alberto Federico Garcia122,123, Chiara Gerardi124, Wagih Ghannam125, Helen Giamarellou126, Natalya Glushkova127, George Gkiokas128, Debra A. Goff129, Harumi Gomi130, Magnus Gottfredsson131,132, Ewen A. Griffiths133, Rosio Isabel Guerra Gronerth134,135, Xavier Guirao136, Yogesh K. Gupta137, Gregory Halle-Ekane138, Sonja Hansen139, Mainul Haque140, Timothy C. Hardcastle141, David T.S. Hayman142, Andreas Hecker143, Markus Hell144, Vanessa P. Ho145,146, Adrien M. Hodonou147, Arda Isik148, Salequl Islam149,150, Kamal M.F. Itani151, Nadia Jaidane152, Ib Jammer153, David R. Jenkins154, Ibrahim Franklyn Kamara155, Souha S. Kanj21, Desmond Jumbam156, Masoud Keikha157, Ashish K, Khanna158,159, Sahil Khanna160, Gaetanjali Kapoor161, Garima Kapoor162, Samuel Kariuki163, Faryal Khamis164, Vladimir Khokha165, Reuben Kiggundu166, Ronald Kiguba167, Hong Bin Kim168, Peter K. Kim169, Andrew W Kirkpatrick170, Yoram Kluger171, Wen-Chien Ko172,173, Kenneth Y.Y. Kok174, Vihar Kotecha175, Ibrahima Kouma176, Bojan Kovacevic177, Jehona Krasniqi178, Marcela Krutova179, Igor Kryvoruchko180, Ravina Kullar181, Kwaku A. Labi182, Francesco M. Labricciosa183, Sulaiman Lakoh184, Botond Lakatos185,186, Mary Ann D. Lansang187, Ramanan Laxminarayan161, Young Ran Lee188, Marc Leone189, Ari Leppaniemi190, Gabriel Levy Hara191, Andrey Litvin192, Varut Lohsiriwat193, Gustavo M. Machain194, Fawzi Mahomoodally195, Ronald V. Maier196, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder197, Sydney Malama198, Justen Manasa199, Vikas Manchanda200, Ramiro Manzano-Nunez201, Luis Martínez-Martínez202,203, Ignacio Martin-Loeches204-207, Sanjay Marwah208, Emilio Maseda209, Maleda Mathewos210, Ryan C. Maves211, Deborah McNamara212,213, Ziad Memish214-216, Dominik Mertz217,218, Shyam Kumar Mishra219,220, Philippe Montravers221, Maria Luisa Moro222, Elias Mossialos223, Fabrizio Motta224, Steward Mudenda225, Patrick Mugabi56, Mc Juan Muco Mugisha226, Eleftherios Mylonakis227,228, Lena M. Napolitano229, Dilip Nathwani230, Leontine Nkamba231, Emmanuel Fru Nsutebu232, Donal B. O’Connor233, Sade Ogunsola234, Peter Østrup Jensen235,236, Juliana Maria Ordoñez122, Carlos A. Ordoñez122,123, Pablo Ottolino237, Abdoul-Salam Ouedraogo238,239, José Artur Paiva240,241, Miriam Palmieri242, Angelo Pan243, Narayan
Pant244,245, Arpád Panyko246, Ciro Paolillo247, Jay Patel248,249, Federico Pea250,251, Patrizio Petrone252, Nicola Petrosillo253, Tadeja Pintar254, Haralds Plaudis255,256, Mauro Podda257, Alfredo Ponce-de-Leon258, Susan L. Powell259, Adrián Puello-Guerrero260, Celine Pulcini261, Kemal Rasa262, Jean-Marc Regimbeau263, Jordi Rello264,265, Manuel Renato Retamozo-Palacios266, Glendee Reynolds-Campbell267, Julival Ribeiro268, Jennifer Rickard269, Nuno Rocha-Pereira,270, Victor D. Rosenthal271, Gian Maria Rossolini272,273, Godfrey M. Rwegerera274, Megan Rwigamba275, Michela Sabbatucci276,277, Žilvinas Saladžinskas278, Rasha E. Salama279, Tondore Sali280, Samson Sahile Salile281,282, Ibrahima Sall283, Hossein Samadi Kafil284, Boris E. Sakakushev285, Robert G. Sawyer286, Marco Scatizzi287, Jeremiah Seni288, Edward J. Septimus289,290, Gabriele Sganga291, Daniel Mønsted Shabanzadeh292, Vishal G. Shelat293,294, Agumas Shibabaw295, Francis Somville296,297, Selma Souf298, Stefania Stefani299, Evelina Tacconelli300, Buon Kim Tan301, Pierre Tattevin302, Carlos Rodriguez-Taveras303, João Paulo Telles304, Orlando Téllez-Almenares305, Jeffrey Tessier306, Nguyen Toan Thang307, Cristian Timmermann308, Jean-François Timsit309,310, Joel Noutakdie Tochie311, Matti Tolonen190, Gabriel Trueba312, Constantinos Tsioutis313, Fabio Tumietto314, Felipe Francisco Tuon315, Jan Ulrych316, Selman Uranues317, Maarten van Dongen318, Harry van Goor319, George C. Velmahos320, Andras Vereczkei321, Bruno Viaggi322, Pierluigi Viale323,324, Jordi Vila325-327, Andreas Voss328, Jasmina Vraneš329,330, Richard R. Watkins331, Nyambura Wanjiru-Korir332, Olivia Waworuntu333, Agnes Wechsler-Fördös334, Klara Yadgarova335, Mohammed Yahaya336, Ali I Yahya337, Yonghong Xiao338, Andee Dzulkarnaen Zakaria339, Tanya L. Zakrison340, Victor Zamora Mesia341, Walter Siquini1, Ara Darzi342, Leonardo Pagani343, Fausto Catena344.

1Department of Surgery, Macerata Hospital, Macerata, Italy. 2Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA. 3General, Emergency and Trauma Surgery Unit, Pisa University Hospital, Pisa, Italy. 4Infection Control Program, University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland. 5Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Department of Pharmacy, Jackson Health System, Miami, Florida, USA. 6Division of Infectious Diseases and Miami Transplant Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. 7Research Institute of Epidemiology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Tashkent, Republic of Uzbekistan. 8Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences, Center for Innovative Drug Development and Therapeutic Trials for Africa (CDT-Africa), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 9School of Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. 10The Research Office, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. 11Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. 12Global Health Focus, Kigali, Rwanda. 13Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, Zinder National Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zinder, Niger. 14Enhancing Primary Health Care Services Project, Representative Office of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Dushanbe, Tajikistan. 15General Surgery Department, Regional Hospital of Korce, Albania. 16Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait. 17Microbiology Unit, Department of Laboratories, Farwania Hospital, Farwania, Kuwait. 18Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, USA. 19Department of Internal Medicine, Rehman Medical Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan. 20Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar. 21Acute Care Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar. 22Infectious Diseases Division, Internal Medicine Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. 23Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. 24Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan. 25Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 26Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan. 27Department of General and Emergency Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. 28Faculty of Health Sciences, Abu Dhabi Women’s College, Higher Colleges of Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. 29Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Santo Tomas, Avenida Balboa, Panama City, Panama. 30School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. 31Department of Surgery, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. 32Medical Laboratory, Ekomdoum Baptist Hospital Yaounde, Yaounde, Cameroon. 33Department of Surgery, Yas Clinic Hospital, Khalifa City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. 34Universitè Gamal Abdel Nasser, Conakry, Guinea. 35Acute Care Surgery and Trauma Unit, Department of General Surgery, Hadassah Medical Center and Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem Kiriat Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel. 36Department of Surgery, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka. 37Department of Surgery, Dirghayu Pokhara Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. 38Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. 39Unit of infectious diseases, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy. 40Clinica Reñaca, Viña Del Mar, Chile. 41Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 42Department of Surgery, Madda Walabu University Goba Referral Hospital, Bala-Robe, Ethiopia. 43Human Pathology Biomedicine and Environment Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco. 44Department of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. 45Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. 46Hospital do Coração, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 47Department of Control, Surveillance and Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 48Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Scripps Clinic Medical Group, La Jolla, California, USA. 49Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health
Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. 50UQ Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. 51Department of Surgery, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 52Research Service, VA Northeast Ohio Healthcare System, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 53Case Western Reserve University-Cleveland VA Medical Center for Antimicrobial Resistance and Epidemiology (Case VA CARES), Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 54Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. 55Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy 56Gulu University, Faculty of Medicine, Global Surgery Unit, Laroo, Uganda. 57Department of Surgery, Hospital Clinico Universitario, IDIS, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 58Department of Infectious Diseases, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMyNSZ), Mexico City, Mexico. 59Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria (IRYCIS), Madrid, Spain. 60CIBER en Enfermedades Infecciosas (CIBERINFEC), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. 61Infectious and Tropical Disease Unit, AOU Policlinico “P. Giaccone”, Palermo, Italy. 62Department of Health Promotion, Mother and Child Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties “G. D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. 63Cantonal Doctor Office, Public Health Department, Canton of Vaud, Lausanne, Switzerland 64Infection Prevention and Control Unit, Infectious Diseases Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. 65NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, London, UK. 66College of Business, Arts, and Social Sciences, Brunel University, London, UK. 67Global Health Group, University of Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain. 68General Surgery Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, ASL Roma 2, Roma, Italy. 69UCL Global Business School for Health, London, UK. 70Infectious Diseases Unit, Clemenceau Medical Center Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. 71Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. 72National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, London, UK. 73Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. 74Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. 75Pharmacy Department, Kamuzu University of Health Sciences (KUHES), Blantyre, Malawi. 76Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, Antimicrobial Stewardship Project. University of Minnesota. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 77Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Semi-Autonomous Republic, China. 78Department of Microbiology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China. 79Division of Pharmacy and Medicines, Luxembourg Health Directorate-Direction de la santé, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. 80Clinical Hospital of Pneumophthisiology and Infectious Diseases, Brasov, Romania. 81Faculty of Medicine, Transylvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania. 82Department of Surgery, Riverside University Health System Medical Center, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA. 83Emergency Surgery Unit, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Roma, Italy. 84Department of Surgery, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Nankai Clinical School of Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. 85Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital in Krakow, Krakow, Poland. 86Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland. 87South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), Skopje, North Macedonia. 88The World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. 89Clinic for Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 90Department of Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. 91Department of Surgery, Tbilisi State Medical University, Tblisi, Georgia. 92Forensic Medicine and Integrated Risk Management Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. 93Directorate of Healthcare Quality and Safety, Ministry of Health, Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte, Sri Lanka. 94Digestive and Metabolic Minimally Invasive Surgery Unit, Clinique Saint Louis, Poissy, Poissy, Ile de France, France. 95Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. 96Department of Pharmacy Practice, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur, India. 97Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of South Florida/Tampa General Hospitall, Tampa, Florida, USA. 98National Institute of Public Health, Bucharest, Romania. 99Research Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada. 100School of Pharmacy, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana. 101Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacy Research Centre, Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. 102Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. 103Department of Surgery, Medical City Plano, Plano, Texas, USA. 104Department of General, Visceral and Thoracic Surgery, Klinikum Hann. Munden Academic Hospital of Goettingen University, Hann. Munden, Germany. 105Department of Bacteriology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. 106National Public Health Laboratory, Khartoum, Sudan. 107Infectious Diseases Section, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 108Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkiye. 109Koç University İşbank Center for Infectious Diseases, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkiye. 110Direction of First Level, Municipal Secretary of Health, Municipal Autonomous Government of Cochabamba, Cochabamba, Bolivia. 111Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 112Lagos State Health Service Commission, Lagos, Nigeria. 113Department of Pathology, General Hospital Odan, Lagos, Nigeria. 114Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. 115Dipartimento di Scienze di Laboratorio e Infettivologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCSS, Rome, Italy. 116Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 117General and Trauma Surgery Division, Hospital das Clínicas, School of Medicine, São Paulo State University, Brazil. 118Department of Surgery, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 119Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 120Clínica Foianini, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. 121Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 122Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Department of Intensive Care, Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia. 123Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia. 124Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri” IRCCS, 20156 Milan, Italy. 125Department of Surgery, Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. 126First Department of Internal Medicine-Infectious Diseases, Hygeia General Hospital, Athens, Greece. 127Faculty of Medicine and Health Care, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan. 128Department of Surgery, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “Aretaieio” Hospital, Athens, Greece. 129Department of Pharmacy, The
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University College of Pharmacy, Columbus, Ohio, USA. 130Office of Medical Education and Center for Infectious Diseases, International University of Health and Welfare School of Medicine, Narita, Chiba, Japan. 131Department of Infectious Diseases, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland. 132Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. 133Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK. 134Centro Médico Naval Cirujano Mayor Santiago Tavara, Callao, Peru. 135School of Medicine, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru. 136Unit of Endocrine, Head, and Neck Surgery and Unit of Surgical Infections Support, Department of General Surgery, Parc Taulí Hospital Universitari, Sabadell, Spain. 137Rukamni Birla hospital, Jaipur, India. 138Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon. 139Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt‑Universitat zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany. 140Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defence Health, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 141Department of Surgical Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, and Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban, South Africa.. 142Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. 143Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. 144Department of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, Medilab, Academic Teaching Laboratories of the Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. 145Division of Trauma Surgery, Acute Care Surgery, Critical Care, and Burns, Department of Surgery, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 146Case Western Reserve University, Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 147Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Parakou, Parakou, Benin. 148Department of Surgery, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Turkiye. 149School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 150Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 151Department of Surgery, Veterans Affairs Boston Health Care System, Boston University Chobianian and Avedisian School of Medicine, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 152Research Unit, Emergent Bacterial Resistance and Safety of Care UR12SP37, Laboratory of Microbiology, University Hospital Sahloul, Sousse, Tunisia. 153Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. 154Department of Clinical Microbiology, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK. 155World Health Organization Country Office, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 156Department of Health Policy and Advocacy, Operation Smile, Virginia Beach, Virginia, USA. 157Department of Microbiology and Virology, School of Medicine, Iranshahr University of Medical Sciences, Iranshahr, Iran. 158Department of Anesthesiology, Section on Critical Care Medicine, Wake Forest Center for Biomedical Informatics, Perioperative Outcomes and Informatics Collaborative, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. 159Outcomes Research Consortium, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. 160Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. 161One Health Trust, Washington, District of Colombia, USA. 162Department of Microbiology, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal, India. 163Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. 164Adult Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman. 165Department of Emergency Surgery, City Hospital, Mozyr, Belarus. 166USAID Medicines, Technologies, and Pharmaceutical Services Program, Management Sciences for Health, Kampala, Uganda. 167Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. 168Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea. 169Department of Surgery, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. 170Departments of Surgery and Critical Care Medicine, University of Calgary, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada. 171Department of General Surgery, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. 172Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 173Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. 174Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa’adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. 175Department of General Surgery, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Bugando, Mwanza, Tanzania. 176One Health in Action Initiative, Bouaké, Ivory Coast. 177Department of Surgery, UMC Zvezdara, Belgrade, Serbia. 178Clinic of Infectious Diseases, University Clinical Center of Kosova, Prishtina, Kosovo. 179Department of Medical Microbiology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and Motol University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. 180Department of Surgery No.2, Kharkiv National Medical University, Kharkiv, Ukraine. 181Expert Stewardship, Inc., Newport Beach, California, USA. 182Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, , Accra, Ghana. 183Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery, Macerata, Italy. 184Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. 185South Pest Central Hospital, National Institute of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, Budapest, Hungary. 186Department of Internal Medicine and Hematology, Division of Infectology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. 187Department of Clinical Epidemiology, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines. 188Department of Clinical Sciences, Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Tyler, TX, USA. 189Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Aix-Marseille University, AP-HM, North Hospital, Marseille, France. 190Department of Abdominal Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 191Unit of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos G. Durand, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 192Department of Surgery, Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia. 193Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. 194Department of Surgery, Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, Asuncion, Paraguay. 195Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius. 196Department of Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. 197Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Bridgetown, Barbados. 198Department of Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. 199Microbiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. 200Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. 201Clinical Research Unit, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain. 202Unit of Microbiology, University Hospital Reina Sofía, Córdoba, Spain. 203Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Edaphology and Microbiology, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba, Córdoba, Spain. 204Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Research Organisation, St James’s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
205Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. 206Centro de Investigacion Biomedica En Red Entermedades Respiratorias, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. 207Pulmonary Department, Hospital Clinic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. 208Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, India. 209Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Critical Care, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain. 210Department of Surgery, Wolaita Sodo University, Sodo, Ethiopia. 211Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. 212Department of Colorectal Surgery, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. 213Royal College of Surgeons, St. Stephen’s Green, Dublin, Ireland. 214Al-Faisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 215Ministry of Health, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. 216Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 217Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 218Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 219Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal. 220School of Optometry and Vision Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 221Département d’anesthésie-réanimation, université de Paris, CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, APHP, Paris, France. 222Italian Multidisciplinary Society for the Prevention of Healthcare-associated infections, Milan, Italy. 223Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. 224Hospital da Criança Santo Antônio, Porto Alegre, Brazil. 225Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia. 226Rinda Ubuzima Clinical Research Center, Kigali, Rwanda. 227Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital and Academic Institute, Houston, Texas, USA. 228Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA 229Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. 230Global Antimicrobial Stewardship Partnership Hub. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Birmingham, UK. 231Higher Teacher Training College, University of Bertoua, Cameroon 232Tropical and Infectious Diseases Division, Sheikh Shakhbout Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. 233Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. 234Centre for Integrated Health Programs, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. 235Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 236Costerton Biofilm Center, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 237Department of Surgery, Hospital Sotero Del Rio, Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile. 238Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens Laboratory, Sourô Sanou University Hospital Center, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 239Bacteriology-Virology Department, Sourô Sanou University Hospital, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 240Intensive Care Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, Porto, Portugal 241Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal. 242Department of General and Emergency Surgery, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy. 243Unit of Infectious Diseases, ASST Cremona, Cremona, Italy. 244College of Medicine and Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. 245Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, Townsville, Australia. 246Fourth Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University Bratislava and University Hospital Bratislava, Slovakia. 247Emergency Department, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. 248Global Health Governance Program, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. 249School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. 250Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. 251Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Department for Integrated Infectious Risk Management, Azienda Ospedaliero-University di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. 252Department of Surgery, NYU Long Island School of Medicine, NYU Langone Hospital-Long Island, Mineola, New York, USA. 253Infection Prevention and Control, Infectious Disease Service, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy. 254Department of Abdominal Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. 255Faculty of Medicine, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia. 256Department of General and Emergency Surgery, Riga East Clinical University Hospital, Latvia. 257Department of Surgical Science, Emergency Surgery Unit, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. 258Infectious Diseases Department, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Mexico City, Mexico. 259Department of Geriatric Medicine, Worcestershire Acute Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Worcestershire, UK. 260Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 261Laboratoire APEMAC, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Nancy, and Centre regional en antibiothérapie du Grand Est, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France. 262Department of General Surgery, Anadolu Medical Center Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkiye. 263Department of Digestive Surgery, CHU Amiens Picardie and University of Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France. 264Global Health eCore, Vall d’Hebron Institute of Research (VHIR), Ps. Vall d’Hebron 129, AMI-14, 08035, Barcelona, Spain. 265Unité de Recherche FOREVA, Réanimation Douleur Urgences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nîmes, Nîmes, France. 266Infectious Diseases Section, Hospital Regional de Taguatinga, Taguatinga, Brasília, Brazil. 267Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. 268Infection Control, Hospital de Base, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. 269Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. 270Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control Unit, Centro Hospitalar Universitário São João, Porto, Portugal. 271International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Foundation, Miami, FL, USA. 272Department of Microbiology and Virology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. 273Microbiology and Virology Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy. 274Department of Internal Medicine, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana. 275Wits School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa 276Ministry of Health, Directorate-General for Health Prevention, Rome, Italy. 277Department of Infectious Diseases, Italian National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy. 278Clinic of Surgery, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. 279Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. 280Hôpital DOGTA-LAFIE, Lomé, Togo. 281Pharmacology Department, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 282 Pharmacy Department, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia. 283General Surgery Department, Military Teaching Hospital, Dakar, Senegal. 284Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. 285Research Institute at Medical University Plovdiv/University Hospital St George, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. 286Department of Surgery, Western Michigan University School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. 287General Surgery Unit, Santa Maria Annunziata & Serristori Hospital, Firenze, Italy. 288Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Bugando School of Medicine, Catholic
University of Health and Allied Sciences, Mwanza, Tanzania. 289Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School/Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Masachusetts, USA. 290Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A&M University, Houston, Texas, USA. 291Emergency Surgery and Trauma-Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli,” Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. 292Department of Surgery, Nordsjaellands University Hospital, Hilleroed, Denmark. 293Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Novena, Singapore. 294Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Novena, Singapore. 295Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia. 296Department of Emergency Medicine, Ziekenhuis Geel, Geel, Belgium; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium. 297Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Center for Research and Education in Emergency Care, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 298Institut Pasteur of Algeria, Algiers, Algeria. 299Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. 300Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. 301Intensive Care Unit, Saint Joseph-Saint Luc Hospital, Lyon, France. 302Infectious Diseases and Intensive Care Unit, Pontchaillou University Hospital, Rennes, France. 303Hospital Central de Las Fuerzas Armadas, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 304Infectious Diseases Department, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil 305Departemnt of Surgery, Saturnino Oral Provincial Hospital, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. 306Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. 307Department of Anesthesia, Bachmai University Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. 308Division of Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany. 309Medical and Infectious Diseases ICU, APHP Bichat Hospital F, Paris, France. 310Infection, Antimicrobials, Modelling, Evolution. French Institute for Medical Research, University of Paris, Paris, France. 311Anesthesiology and Critical Care Units, Douala Laquintinie Hospital, Douala, Cameroon. 312Institute of Microbiology, Biological and Environmental Sciences College, University San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador. 313School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus. 314Unit of Antimicrobial Stewardship, Local Health Authority, City of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. 315Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. 316First Department of Surgery, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic. 317Section for Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. 318AMR Insights, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 319Department of Surgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 320Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery, and Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. 321Department of Surgery, Medical School, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary. 322Department of Anesthesiology, Neuro-Intensive Care Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy. 323Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. 324Infectious Diseases Unit, Department for Integrated Infectious Risk Management, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. 325Department of Clinical Microbiology, Center for Biomedical Diagnosis, Hospital Clinic-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. 326Department of Basic Clinical Practice, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. 327Barcelona Institute for Global Health, Barcelona, Spain. 328Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Prevention, University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands. 329Clinical Microbiology Department, Dr. Andrija Štampar Teaching Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, Croatia. 330Medical Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia 331Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, USA. 332Coast General Teaching and Referral Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya. 333Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee, Prof. Dr. R.D. Kandou Central General Hospital, Manado, Indonesia. 334Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Rudolfstiftung, Wien, Austria. 335The National Chamber of Innovative Healthcare of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 336Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 337General Surgery Department, Zliten Medical Center, Zliten, Libya. 338State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. 339Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kota Bharu, Malaysia. 340Section of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. 341Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Lima, Peru. 342Institute of Global Health Innovation, St. Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK. 343Antimicrobial Stewardship Project, Provincial Hospital of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy. 344Department of Surgery, “Bufalini” Hospital, Cesena, Italy.



Source link